The Dangers of Sending Mold Samples Prematurely to Chinese Manufacturers

In the intricate dance of international manufacturing, a misstep such as dispatching mold samples to a Chinese manufacturer before securing appropriate legal safeguards can lead to significant intellectual property (IP) risks. Understanding and navigating these risks is essential for businesses looking to maintain their competitive edge in the global market. This article explores the potential dangers of prematurely sending mold samples to Chinese manufacturers, the critical importance of securing robust legal agreements specifically adapted to Chinese laws, the necessity of having legally verified Chinese language versions of these agreements, and the additional challenges posed by China’s patent system and trademark squatting issues. Moreover, it highlights the crucial roles of Mold Developing Agreements and Contract Manufacturing Agreements in protecting your interests.

The Peril of Sending Samples Too Soon

The act of sending mold samples to a manufacturer without first establishing a Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA) or a Non-Use, Non-Disclosure, and Non-Circumvention (NNN) contract can expose your product to potential IP infringement. These agreements are foundational to protecting your IP, and failing to secure them can leave your business vulnerable to unauthorized use, duplication, or disclosure of your proprietary designs and innovations.

Intellectual Property Risks

Intellectual property encompasses creations of the mind such as inventions, designs, and brand names, which are crucial to a company’s market position. When these assets are sent to a manufacturer without proper legal protections, there is a risk that the manufacturer may replicate the designs, share them with competitors, or use them to produce similar products. This can lead to a loss of competitive advantage, revenue, and market share.

Legal Agreements as Safeguards

While NDAs are commonly used in many international business transactions, they may not be sufficient when dealing with Chinese manufacturers. An NNN agreement provides superior protection compared to a standard NDA.

Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs)

An NDA ensures that the manufacturer agrees to keep your proprietary information confidential. This agreement is essential for maintaining secrecy but may not cover all potential risks associated with Chinese manufacturing.

Non-Use, Non-Disclosure, and Non-Circumvention (NNN) Contracts

An NNN agreement offers broader and more robust protection. The NNN contract not only includes confidentiality provisions but also prevents the manufacturer from using your designs to produce competing products, disclosing your information to third parties, or circumventing your business to deal directly with your clients or customers.

Key Elements of NNN Contracts

  1. Non-Use: Ensures that the manufacturer cannot use your molds or designs for any purpose other than what is stipulated in the agreement.
  2. Non-Disclosure: Prevents the manufacturer from disclosing your designs or proprietary information to any third party.
  3. Non-Circumvention: Prohibits the manufacturer from bypassing your company to deal directly with your customers or suppliers.

Adaptation to Chinese Laws

An effective NNN contract must be drafted with Chinese legal principles in mind. This includes:

  • Jurisdiction: The contract should specify that any disputes will be resolved under Chinese jurisdiction, preferably in a court that is favorable for IP rights enforcement.
  • Language: The contract must include a legally verified Chinese language version. Non-Chinese contracts are often poorly translated, leading to misunderstandings and legal loopholes. Ensuring the contract is accurately translated and legally binding in Chinese prevents these issues.

Why NNN Contracts Offer Superior Protection

NNN contracts are particularly crucial in China due to the unique business environment and legal framework. Chinese manufacturers may have different standards and practices regarding IP compared to Western countries. An NNN contract tailored to Chinese laws ensures that the manufacturer is legally bound to respect your IP rights within the Chinese legal system. This comprehensive approach helps prevent unauthorized use, disclosure, and circumvention, providing a higher level of security for your valuable IP assets.

Mold Developing Agreements

In addition to NDAs and NNN agreements, a Mold Developing Agreement is critical when dealing with Chinese manufacturers. This agreement outlines the specifics of mold development, ensuring that all technical specifications, timelines, costs, and ownership rights are clearly defined.

Key Components of Mold Developing Agreements

  1. Technical Specifications: Detailed descriptions of the mold’s design and functionality to ensure the manufacturer fully understands the requirements.
  2. Ownership: Clauses that clearly state that the molds are the property of the client, not the manufacturer, preventing unauthorized use.
  3. Costs and Payment Terms: Clear definitions of the costs involved in mold development and the payment schedule to avoid financial disputes.
  4. Timelines: Specific deadlines for the completion of each phase of mold development to ensure timely delivery and avoid production delays.
  5. Quality Control: Procedures for inspecting and verifying the quality of the molds before final acceptance.

Contract Manufacturing Agreements

Once the molds are developed, a Contract Manufacturing Agreement (CMA) is essential to govern the manufacturing process. This agreement sets the terms under which the manufacturer produces the goods, ensuring that the client’s IP and quality standards are upheld.

Key Components of Contract Manufacturing Agreements

  1. Scope of Work: Detailed descriptions of the products to be manufactured, including specifications and quality standards.
  2. IP Protection: Clauses that ensure the manufacturer’s use of the client’s IP is strictly limited to the production of the contracted goods.
  3. Quality Assurance: Provisions for quality control inspections and remedies for defects or non-conformance to standards.
  4. Confidentiality: Reinforcement of NDA or NNN clauses to ensure ongoing protection of proprietary information.
  5. Supply Chain Transparency: Requirements for the manufacturer to disclose their supply chain to prevent unauthorized subcontracting.
  6. Termination and Dispute Resolution: Clear terms for contract termination and processes for resolving disputes, ideally under Chinese jurisdiction.

Redirecting In-Transit Samples

If the mold samples have not yet arrived at the Chinese manufacturer’s facility, there’s a critical window of opportunity to mitigate risk. By contacting the express company to change the delivery destination, you can prevent the manufacturer from accessing the molds until proper legal agreements, such as NDAs, NNN contracts, Mold Developing Agreements, and CMAs are in place. This preemptive move is a crucial step in safeguarding your IP. Acting swiftly in this situation can avoid the potential misuse of your molds and the resulting competitive disadvantage.

Steps to Redirect In-Transit Samples

  1. Immediate Action: Contact the courier service as soon as you realize the samples were sent prematurely. Explain the situation and request a change in delivery destination.
  2. Alternative Destinations: Redirect the samples to a trusted partner, your legal team, or back to your own facility.
  3. Legal Preparation: Use the time gained by the redirection to prepare and sign the necessary legal agreements with the manufacturer.

Dealing with Delivered Samples

If the samples have already reached the manufacturer, immediate legal action is necessary. An NDA should be signed as soon as possible to ensure the confidentiality of your product’s details. However, in the context of Chinese manufacturing, an NNN agreement is particularly crucial. These agreements offer comprehensive protection by preventing the manufacturer from using, disclosing, or circumventing your IP rights. The NNN contract’s broader scope addresses not only confidentiality but also ensures that the manufacturer cannot compete with you using your own designs.

Legal Actions for Delivered Samples

  1. Urgent Negotiations: Contact the manufacturer immediately to negotiate the signing of an NDA and NNN agreement.
  2. Legal Counsel: Involve your legal team to ensure the agreements are comprehensive and enforceable under Chinese law.
  3. Documentation: Keep detailed records of all communications and agreements made to ensure legal recourse if needed.

The Need for Patents in China

In addition to securing NDAs and NNN contracts, considering patent applications in China is a wise strategy. Given the high demand and the prevalent risks of IP infringement, patents provide an additional layer of legal protection for your inventions and designs in the Chinese market. Patents can serve as a powerful deterrent against unauthorized use and can provide you with legal recourse in the event of infringement. Filing for patents should be seen as a necessary investment to protect your IP in a market where competition is fierce and the potential for copying is significant.

Types of Patents in China

  1. Invention Patents: These patents provide protection for new technical solutions relating to a product, process, or improvement. They are valid for 20 years from the date of filing.
  2. Utility Model Patents: Often referred to as “small inventions,” these patents protect new technical solutions relating to the shape or structure of a product. They are easier and faster to obtain compared to invention patents and are valid for 10 years from the date of filing.
  3. Design Patents: These patents protect new designs relating to the shape, pattern, or combination thereof, or the combination of color with shape and pattern, which create an aesthetic feeling and are suitable for industrial application. Design patents are valid for 15 years from the date of filing.

The First-to-File System in China

China operates under a “first-to-file” patent system, meaning that the first person to file a patent application for an invention is granted the patent, regardless of the actual date of invention. This system creates significant risks for foreign companies, as Chinese manufacturers or competitors could file for patents on your designs or inventions if you have not already done so.

Risks of the First-to-File System

  1. Loss of Rights: If a competitor files a patent application for your invention before you do, you may lose the right to patent that invention in China.
  2. Legal Battles: Disputes over patent rights can lead to costly and time-consuming legal battles.
  3. Market Exclusion: Competitors with patents on your designs can prevent you from manufacturing, using, selling, or importing your products in China.

Benefits of Patents

  1. Legal Protection: Patents offer legal recognition of your IP, enabling you to take legal action against infringers.
  2. Market Advantage: Patents can enhance your market position by establishing your company as an innovator.
  3. Monetary Gains: Patents can potentially be licensed to other companies, generating additional revenue.

Process of Securing Patents

  1. Research: Conduct thorough research to ensure your invention is novel and patentable.
  2. Filing: File a patent application with the China National Intellectual Property Administration (CNIPA).
  3. Approval: Work with a patent attorney to navigate the application process and secure approval.

The Problem of Trademark Squatting in China

Another significant issue that foreign businesses face in China is trademark squatting. This practice involves registering trademarks that are identical or similar to well-known foreign brands with the intent of selling them back to the rightful owners or exploiting their established market presence.

Risks of Trademark Squatting

  1. Brand Dilution: Squatters can use your brand name on inferior products, damaging your brand’s reputation.
  2. Market Confusion: Consumers may be confused by the presence of similar brand names, leading to lost sales and market share.
  3. Legal Costs: Reclaiming your trademark can involve lengthy and expensive legal battles.

Preventative Measures Against Trademark Squatting

  1. Early Registration: Register your trademarks in China as early as possible, ideally before entering the market.
  2. Comprehensive Protection: Register not only your primary brand name but also any variations and related marks that could be exploited by squatters.
  3. Monitoring and Enforcement: Regularly monitor the Chinese trademark database for potential infringements and be prepared to take swift legal action to protect your rights.

The Cost of Protection Versus Risk

Although incurring mold charges is often expensive, it pales in comparison to the potential losses from IP infringement. Without proper agreements, there’s a risk that the Chinese manufacturer might create new molds based on your samples, especially if they perceive a high market demand. This scenario could lead to significant financial losses and unwelcome competition. The initial costs associated with securing NDAs, NNN contracts, Mold Developing Agreements, CMAs, patents, and trademark registrations are minor when compared to the potential long-term losses that could arise from IP theft. The legal groundwork laid before sending mold samples can safeguard your business’s future and ensure that your innovations remain yours.

Financial Considerations

  1. Mold Charges: Understand that the upfront cost of creating molds and securing legal agreements is an investment in protecting your IP.
  2. Long-Term Savings: Consider the long-term financial savings from avoiding IP theft and maintaining market exclusivity.
  3. Legal Fees: Budget for legal fees associated with drafting and enforcing NDAs, NNN contracts, Mold Developing Agreements, CMAs, patents, and trademarks.

Strategic Planning

  1. Risk Assessment: Conduct a thorough risk assessment to understand the potential threats to your IP.
  2. Preventative Measures: Implement preventative measures, including legal agreements and patents, to safeguard your IP.
  3. Continuous Monitoring: Continuously monitor the market for potential infringements and be prepared to take legal action if necessary.


The importance of securing legal safeguards before sending mold samples to Chinese manufacturers cannot be overstated. The proactive steps of redirecting in-transit samples, securing NDAs, NNN agreements, Mold Developing Agreements, CMAs, and filing for patents and trademarks in China are essential strategies to protect your IP. The costs associated with these measures are a necessary investment in safeguarding your business against the far greater potential losses due to IP infringement. By taking these precautions, you can ensure that your innovations remain protected and your business continues to thrive in the competitive global market.

Contact us if you need help with drafting of contracts that follows Chinese laws and are enforceable in China, background investigation of Chinese companies, protecting patents, trademarks, verification of contracts to the law in China, or help with other legal challenges that you have in China.

If you require our assistance or have further questions about our services, please do not hesitate to contact our Customer Relationship Managers Jan Erik Christensen, at . We look forward to hearing from you and helping your business succeed in China.

This article is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended to replace professional legal counsel. The information contained herein does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. Reading this article does not establish an attorney-client relationship between the reader and the author or the author’s organization. Our website aim to provide general information for educational and communication purposes.