Trademark Turbulence: How Foreign Businesses are Affected by China’s Trademark Squatting Issues

China’s unique approach to trademark registration, often leading to what is termed “trademark squatting,” has become a significant hurdle for foreign businesses entering or operating in the Chinese market. This phenomenon is rooted in China’s “first-to-file” trademark system, which starkly contrasts with the “first-to-invent” or “first-to-use” systems prevalent in many other countries. The implications of this difference are vast, affecting international companies in various ways.


Understanding China’s “First-to-File” Trademark System

At the heart of the issue is China’s trademark framework, which operates on a “first-to-file” basis. Unlike systems that give precedence to the original creator or first user of a trademark, China awards rights to the first entity that successfully registers the trademark. This principle applies irrespective of the trademark’s usage or fame in other parts of the world. Thus, a local entity can legally own a foreign brand’s trademark in China if they are the first to register it, regardless of the foreign brand’s international recognition or history.


Legal Consequences of Neglecting Trademark Rights

Foreign companies face serious legal ramifications if they neglect to register their trademarks in China. If a Chinese entity registers a trademark identical or similar to that of a foreign company, the foreign company is legally prohibited from manufacturing or doing business with products bearing that trademark in China. This restriction applies even if the intention is solely to export these products. Operating without proper trademark rights can lead to legal disputes, confiscation of goods, and substantial fines. These consequences underscore the importance of proactive trademark registration for foreign businesses.


The Rise of Trademark Squatting in China

The first-to-file system has inadvertently fueled the practice of “trademark squatting” in China. Individuals or companies—often manufacturers or those connected to manufacturing—register well-known or up-and-coming foreign trademarks to leverage financial gains. They may intend to resell these rights to the original owners at a premium or exploit the established reputation of the brand for their benefit. This form of opportunism has increasingly become a strategy for some local entities, looking to exploit the gaps in the legal framework to their advantage.


Strategies for Foreign Businesses to Navigate the System

To navigate China’s trademark landscape successfully, foreign businesses must be proactive and strategic. Key approaches include:

  1. Early Registration: Register trademarks in China as early as possible, even before entering the Chinese market. This pre-emptive measure is the most effective way to avoid falling victim to trademark squatting.
  2. Comprehensive Trademark Portfolio: Register not just the primary brand name but also associated logos, slogans, and key product names. A broad trademark portfolio provides more comprehensive protection.
  3. Vigilance and Enforcement: Regularly monitor the market for any trademark infringements and be ready to enforce rights through legal channels. Establishing a local legal presence or working with local experts can be invaluable in this regard.
  4. Understanding Cultural Nuances: When you protect a trademark in China, the name is not automatically protected in Chinese. To protect Chinese names, you must adapt trademarks and brand names to fit the Chinese language and culture. This not only resonates better with the local market but also reduces the risk of misappropriation by entities unfamiliar with foreign languages.
  5. Negotiation and Settlement: In cases where trademark squatting occurs, explore negotiation and settlement options. Sometimes, acquiring the trademark from the squatter might be more cost-effective than engaging in lengthy legal battles.


The Crucial Role of Customs Registration in Combating Trademark Squatting in China

Registering trademarks with Chinese customs is a pivotal, yet often overlooked step for foreign businesses to combat trademark squatting in China. This process is not just about establishing legal ownership but also about empowering customs authorities to act as a frontline defense against the export of counterfeit products.

Key Advantages of Using Customs Registration in China:

  1. Interception of Counterfeit Goods: By registering trademarks with Chinese customs, businesses enable authorities to identify and seize counterfeit goods at the border, preventing their global distribution.
  2. Enhanced Enforcement: Customs registration gives legal authority to officials to detain shipments that violate trademark rights, disrupting counterfeiters’ operations.
  3. Cost-Effective Strategy: Compared to the expenses of legal proceedings and revenue loss due to trademark squatting, customs registration is a financially savvy move for protecting a brand.

For businesses facing the challenges of trademark squatting in China, registering their trademarks with customs is an essential and effective strategy to safeguard their interests and prevent the spread of counterfeit goods.



The landscape of trademark registration in China, dominated by its “first-to-file” system, presents unique challenges for foreign businesses. Trademark squatting has emerged as a significant issue, with local entities capitalizing on the legal framework to secure rights to foreign trademarks. For businesses looking to enter or expand in China, understanding and strategically navigating this system is crucial. By registering trademarks early, maintaining vigilance, and understanding the local market, foreign companies can better protect their brand and ensure a smoother operation in one of the world’s most dynamic markets.




Q1: What is China’s “first-to-file” trademark system?
A1: China’s “first-to-file” system awards trademark rights to the entity that registers the trademark first, regardless of its use or fame elsewhere. This system differs from the “first-to-invent” or “first-to-use” systems in other countries, emphasizing the importance of early registration in China.

Q2: What are the legal consequences for foreign businesses if they don’t register their trademarks in China?
A2: If a foreign business doesn’t register its trademark and a Chinese entity registers it first, the foreign business could be legally barred from using that trademark in China. This includes manufacturing and selling products under that trademark, even if the intention is just to export them. Violations can lead to legal actions, confiscation of goods, and heavy fines.

Q3: What is trademark squatting, and why is it a concern in China?
A3: Trademark squatting in China involves individuals or companies registering trademarks of well-known or emerging foreign brands to exploit their value. This practice is prevalent due to the first-to-file system and can lead to financial losses and brand reputation damage for the original trademark owners.

Q4: How can foreign businesses protect their trademarks in China?
A4: Foreign businesses should register their trademarks in China as early as possible. They should also maintain a comprehensive portfolio of trademarks (including logos and slogans) and monitor for infringements, ready to enforce rights through legal channels.

Q5: Why is it important to register trademarks with Chinese customs?
A5: Registering trademarks with Chinese customs empowers authorities to seize counterfeit goods at the border, acting as an effective defense against the export of fake products. It’s a cost-effective strategy that complements other IP protection efforts in China.

Q6: Can negotiations resolve issues with trademark squatters in China?
A6: Yes, negotiation and settlement can sometimes resolve issues with trademark squatters. It might be more cost-effective for businesses to acquire the trademark from the squatter than engage in lengthy legal battles.


Contact us if you need legal help in China, like drafting effective cease and desist letters, drafting contracts that follow Chinese law and are enforceable in China, background investigation of Chinese companies, protecting patents, trademarks, copyright, and verification of contracts to the law in China, help with trade and IP disputes in China, etc.

If you require our assistance or have further questions about our services, please do not hesitate to contact our Customer Relationship Manager, Jan Erik Christensen, at We look forward to hearing from you and helping your business succeed in China.


Contact us if you need help with drafting of contracts that follows Chinese laws and are enforceable in China, background investigation of Chinese companiesprotecting patents, trademarks, verification of contracts to the law in China, or help with other legal challenges that you have in China.

If you require our assistance or have further questions about our services, please do not hesitate to contact our Customer Relationship Managers Jan Erik Christensen, at  or Milla Chen, at We look forward to hearing from you and helping your business succeed in China.