The Common Threat: Chinese Manufacturers Registering Foreign Company Trademarks

In the intricate dance of international manufacturing, a significant threat looms large: Chinese manufacturers frequently register trademarks of foreign companies within China. This practice, often termed trademark squatting, can lead to substantial intellectual property (IP) risks and have severe implications for foreign businesses. Understanding and navigating these risks is essential for maintaining a competitive edge in the global market. This article delves into the dangers of losing trademark rights in China, the critical importance of securing robust legal agreements specifically adapted to Chinese laws, the necessity of having legally verified Chinese language versions of these agreements, and the additional challenges posed by China’s trademark system. Moreover, it highlights the crucial role of Non-Use, Non-Disclosure, and Non-Circumvention (NNN) contracts in protecting your trademarks and ensuring they are registered in your business name, not in the name of the Chinese manufacturer.

The Threat of Trademark Squatting

One of the most significant risks foreign businesses face in China is trademark squatting. This practice involves Chinese manufacturers or other entities registering trademarks that are identical or similar to well-known foreign brands with the intent of selling them back to the rightful owners or exploiting their established market presence. It is a common and pervasive issue that can severely impact foreign companies.

Risks of Trademark Squatting

  • Brand Dilution: Squatters can use your brand name on inferior products, damaging your brand’s reputation.
  • Market Confusion: Consumers may be confused by the presence of similar brand names, leading to lost sales and market share.
  • Legal Costs: Reclaiming your trademark can involve lengthy and expensive legal battles.

Preventative Measures Against Trademark Squatting

  • Early Registration: Register your trademarks in China as early as possible, ideally before entering the market. Early registration is the most effective way to prevent squatters from exploiting your brand.
  • Comprehensive Protection: Register not only your primary brand name but also any variations and related marks that could be exploited by squatters. This ensures broad protection across all potential brand uses.
  • Monitoring and Enforcement: Regularly monitor the Chinese trademark database for potential infringements and be prepared to take swift legal action to protect your rights. This proactive approach helps identify and address issues before they escalate.
  • Ensure Ownership: Make sure the trademarks are registered under your business name and not the Chinese manufacturer’s name. This prevents the manufacturer from claiming ownership of your brand.

The Role of NNN Contracts in Trademark Protection

NNN contracts are vital in protecting your trademarks when dealing with Chinese manufacturers. These agreements provide comprehensive safeguards against IP theft and ensure that your trademarks are respected and protected under Chinese law.

Key Elements of NNN Contracts

  • Non-Use: This clause ensures that the manufacturer cannot use your trademarks or designs for any purpose other than what is stipulated in the agreement. It prevents unauthorized production and misuse of your brand.
  • Non-Disclosure: This provision prevents the manufacturer from disclosing your trademarks, designs, or proprietary information to any third party. It maintains the confidentiality of your IP.
  • Non-Circumvention: This clause prohibits the manufacturer from bypassing your company to deal directly with your customers or suppliers. It protects your business relationships and market position.

Adaptation to Chinese Laws

An effective NNN contract must be drafted with Chinese legal principles in mind. This includes:

  • Jurisdiction: The contract should specify that any disputes will be resolved under Chinese jurisdiction.
  • Language: The contract must include a legally verified Chinese language version. Non-Chinese contracts are often poorly translated, leading to misunderstandings and legal loopholes. Ensuring the contract is accurately translated and legally binding in Chinese prevents these issues.

Why NNN Contracts Offer Superior Protection

NNN contracts are particularly crucial in China due to the unique business environment and legal framework. Chinese manufacturers may have different standards and practices regarding IP compared to Western countries. An NNN contract tailored to Chinese laws ensures that the manufacturer is legally bound to respect your IP rights within the Chinese legal system. This comprehensive approach helps prevent unauthorized use, disclosure, and circumvention, providing a higher level of security for your valuable IP assets, including trademarks.

Avoiding Trademark Infringement Seizures in China

As a foreign company, you might have branded goods manufactured in China. Without proper trademark registration and legal agreements, there is a risk that your goods could be seized for trademark infringement, resulting in significant legal and financial consequences. If your products are deemed to infringe on trademarks registered by Chinese entities, you could be breaking Chinese laws, leading to your products being barred from export and causing substantial disruptions to your supply chain.

Steps to Prevent Trademark Infringement Seizures

  1. Ensure Trademark Registration: Confirm that your trademarks are registered under your business name in China to avoid any claims of infringement.
  2. NNN Agreements: Implement NNN contracts with all Chinese manufacturers to ensure they do not misuse or register your trademarks.
  3. Legal Compliance: Regularly review and comply with Chinese trademark laws to prevent any inadvertent violations.
  4. Export Documentation: Ensure that all export documentation correctly reflects your trademark ownership to prevent customs issues.

Navigating the Trademark Assignment Process in China

In cases where a trademark has already been squatted, navigating the trademark assignment process can be a solution. This involves legally transferring the trademark from the current holder (the squatter) back to your company.

Steps to Navigate the Trademark Assignment Process

  1. Negotiation: Often, the first step is to negotiate with the current trademark holder. This might involve purchasing the trademark from the squatter. While potentially costly, it can be a quicker resolution.
  2. Legal Action: If negotiation fails, legal action may be necessary. Engaging a local attorney who specializes in Chinese IP law can help in building a strong case for the assignment.
  3. Filing for Assignment: Submit a trademark assignment application with the China National Intellectual Property Administration (CNIPA). This process requires detailed documentation and proof of the transfer agreement.
  4. Approval and Registration: Once the assignment is approved, ensure that the trademark is officially registered under your company’s name in the Chinese trademark database.


The threat of Chinese manufacturers registering foreign company trademarks is a common and serious issue that can lead to significant IP risks. The importance of securing legal safeguards, such as NNN agreements, before engaging with Chinese manufacturers cannot be overstated. NNN contracts provide essential protection against the misuse of your trademarks and other IP assets. Additionally, understanding and navigating the trademark assignment process can provide a resolution if trademark squatting occurs. Ensuring that trademarks are registered in your business name is critical to avoid legal complications and potential seizures of your goods in China. The costs associated with these measures are a necessary investment in safeguarding your business against the far greater potential losses due to IP infringement. By taking these precautions, you can ensure that your trademarks and innovations remain protected, and your business continues to thrive in the competitive global market.

FAQ: Protecting Your Trademarks in China

Q1: What is trademark squatting, and why is it a problem in China?

  • A1: Trademark squatting is the practice where Chinese manufacturers or other entities register trademarks that are identical or similar to well-known foreign brands. This can lead to significant problems such as brand dilution, market confusion, and costly legal battles to reclaim the trademark.

Q2: How can I prevent Chinese manufacturers from registering my trademarks?

  • A2: To prevent trademark squatting, it’s crucial to:
    • Register your trademarks in China as early as possible.
    • Ensure comprehensive protection by registering all variations and related marks.
    • Monitor the Chinese trademark database regularly.
    • Use NNN (Non-Use, Non-Disclosure, and Non-Circumvention) agreements with manufacturers.

Q3: Why is it important to have trademarks registered under my business name?

Q4: What is an NNN agreement, and how does it protect my trademarks?

  • A4: An NNN agreement is a legal contract that includes:
    • Non-Use: Prevents manufacturers from using your trademarks for unauthorized purposes.
    • Non-Disclosure: Ensures confidentiality of your proprietary information.
    • Non-Circumvention: Stops manufacturers from bypassing your company to deal directly with your clients or suppliers. These agreements are tailored to Chinese laws and offer comprehensive protection for your IP assets.

Q5: What should an effective NNN contract include?

Q6: What should I do if my trademark has already been registered by someone else in China?

  • A6: If your trademark has been squatted, you can:
    • Negotiate: Attempt to purchase the trademark from the squatter.
    • Legal Action: Engage a local attorney to pursue legal action.
    • Trademark Assignment: Submit a trademark assignment application with the China National Intellectual Property Administration (CNIPA) to legally transfer the trademark back to your company.

Q7: How can NNN agreements help in avoiding product seizures in China?

  • A7: NNN agreements help ensure that your trademarks are not misused or falsely registered by the manufacturer. This legal safeguard helps in maintaining compliance with Chinese trademark laws and prevents your branded goods from being seized for infringement, ensuring smooth export operations.

Q8: What are the steps involved in navigating the trademark assignment process in China?

  • A8: The steps include:
    • Negotiating with the current trademark holder.
    • Engaging in legal action if negotiation fails.
    • Filing a trademark assignment application with CNIPA.
    • Ensuring the trademark is registered under your company’s name after approval.

Q9: Why is it crucial to adapt legal agreements to Chinese laws?

  • A9: Adapting legal agreements to Chinese laws ensures that they are enforceable within the Chinese legal system. This includes specifying Chinese jurisdiction for disputes and providing a legally verified Chinese language version to avoid misunderstandings and loopholes.

Q10: What are the consequences of not securing trademarks under my business name in China?

  • A10: Failing to secure trademarks under your business name can lead to:
    • Loss of trademark control and potential misuse by manufacturers.
    • Legal complications and increased risk of trademark infringement claims.
    • Potential seizure of your branded goods, leading to significant financial and operational disruptions.

Contact us if you need help with drafting of contracts that follows Chinese laws and are enforceable in China, background investigation of Chinese companies, protecting patents, trademarks, verification of contracts to the law in China, or help with other legal challenges that you have in China.

If you require our assistance or have further questions about our services, please do not hesitate to contact our Customer Relationship Managers Jan Erik Christensen, at . We look forward to hearing from you and helping your business succeed in China.

This article is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended to replace professional legal counsel. The information contained herein does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. Reading this article does not establish an attorney-client relationship between the reader and the author or the author’s organization. Our website aim to provide general information for educational and communication purposes.