The Ultimate Checklist: Protecting Your Molds and Toolings in China

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As the world’s manufacturing hub, China provides a comprehensive supply chain infrastructure and efficient production practices that attract businesses worldwide. At the heart of this manufacturing process lie the molds and toolings, vital components that shape the design and intricacies of mass-produced items. They represent a significant investment of time, money, and innovation, making their protection paramount to safeguard a company’s market positioning and financial health. Unauthorized use or replication can result in considerable losses. Despite strengthened intellectual property (IP) laws in China, protecting these critical assets poses unique challenges. This article presents the ultimate checklist to help businesses protect their molds and toolings in China.


Understanding the Risk Landscape

Navigating the legal environment in China, particularly for foreign entities, can be fraught with complexities. One of the biggest challenges is enforcing contracts. Just like legal systems in other places, China’s legal context is unique with its own set of laws, making contractual enforcement a more challenging task for foreign companies using standard contracts which are not enforceable in China or only depend on their local law firm that gives legal advice that is often lacking when it comes to business activities in China. There’s also a risk associated with changing manufacturers; without adequate legal protection, the previous manufacturer may retain molds and toolings, posing competition risks.

To mitigate these issues, companies must employ a strategic approach involving legal, operational, and tactical measures. The following checklist provides a comprehensive guide.


1. Enter into Non-Use, Non-Disclosure, Non-Circumvention (NNN) Agreements

NNN agreements serve as the first line of defense against the unauthorized use of molds and toolings. They prevent the other party from using the molds without your permission (non-use), disclosing information about the molds to third parties (non-disclosure), or circumventing you by directly selling products that utilize your molds (non-circumvention). This agreement is a must-have before any manufacturing discussions begin, as it binds your Chinese partner legally. It is important that all your contracts should be adapted to the laws in China, be set to jurisdiction in China, and be written in Chinese to ensure that they are enforceable. Many foreign companies use standard contracts that are not adapted to the laws in China and are usually not enforceable in China, or they might even break the laws and be illegal in China.


2. Create Comprehensive Product Manufacturing Agreements (PMAs)

Beyond an NNN agreement, it’s crucial to establish a robust PMA. This agreement should clearly define the ownership of molds, usage limitations, and penalties for any violation. PMAs also should address mold maintenance, repair, replacement, and storage conditions and stipulate the return or destruction of molds upon the termination of the agreement. These details offer an added layer of protection and ensure all parties understand their responsibilities and potential liabilities. All contracts in China should be adapted to Chinese laws, have jurisdiction in China, and be written in Chinese to ensure enforceability in China.


3. Register Designs and Patents in China ASAP

Although contractual agreements are essential, they alone are not sufficient to protect your molds and toolings. Registering your designs and patents in China adds legal weight to your ownership claims, making it harder for others to use your molds without authorization. China operates on a “first to file” system for IP rights, so companies should apply as soon as possible. This approach will also help you navigate any potential legal disputes more effectively.


4. Conduct Thorough Due Diligence

Finally, no protective measures will be effective unless you work with a reputable manufacturing partner. Conduct extensive due diligence on potential partners, including their reputation, business practices, legal names of the legal person and the legal company in Chinese, financial stability, legal track record to see if other companies sue them, and history of IP rights. This includes reviewing potential partners’ litigation history, feedback from previous clients, and their track record of abiding by NNN agreements and PMAs. A responsible partner will respect your rights and honor the contracts, providing an additional layer of protection for your molds and toolings. 



The vast opportunities in China’s manufacturing industry do not come without risks. As molds and toolings represent a considerable investment and provide a competitive edge, it’s critical to take measures to protect these assets. Businesses can substantially minimize risks and protect their vital assets by adhering to the above checklist — implementing robust NNN agreements and PMAs, registering your designs and patents, and thoroughly vetting manufacturing partners. This comprehensive approach will help you navigate China’s unique manufacturing landscape.


Frequently Asked Questions

1. Why is it crucial to protect molds and toolings in China?  Molds and toolings are integral to the manufacturing process, representing significant investment in time, money, and innovation. Unauthorized use or replication can lead to considerable financial losses and compromised market positioning. Therefore, their protection is of paramount importance.

2. What are the risks of manufacturing in China? While China offers many advantages for manufacturing, it also poses some risks. These include difficulties in enforcing contracts, particularly for foreign companies, and challenges related to intellectual property protection. Additionally, switching manufacturers without appropriate legal protections may result in molds and toolings being retained by the previous manufacturer, posing a potential competitive threat.

3. What is an NNN Agreement? A Non-Use, Non-Disclosure, Non-Circumvention (NNN) Agreement is a legal contract that prevents the unauthorized use, disclosure, or circumvention of molds and toolings. This agreement is a must-have before any manufacturing discussions begin, as it legally binds your Chinese partner to protect your assets.

4. What should be included in a Product Manufacturing Agreement (PMA)? A PMA should clearly define the ownership of molds and toolings, usage limitations, and penalties for any violations. It should also detail mold maintenance, repair, replacement, storage conditions, and specify the return or destruction of molds upon termination of the agreement.

5. How can I protect my designs and patents in China? Registering your designs and patents in China adds legal weight to your ownership claims, making it more challenging for others to use your molds and toolings without authorization. China operates on a “first to file” system for IP rights, so it’s advisable to apply as soon as possible.

6. How do I choose a reliable manufacturing partner in China? Conducting thorough due diligence on potential manufacturing partners is key. This includes reviewing their business practices, reputation, financial stability, and history of IP rights. Also, look at their track record of adhering to NNN agreements and PMAs. It’s important to partner with a company that respects your rights and honors the agreed contracts.


Contact us if you need legal help in China, like drafting contracts that follow Chinese law, background investigation of Chinese companies, protecting patents, trademarks, and verification of contracts to the law in China, etc.

If you require our assistance or have further questions about our services, please do not hesitate to contact our Customer Relationship Manager, Jan Erik Christensen, at We look forward to hearing from you and helping your business succeed in China.