Legally Sound in China: Ensuring Your NNN Agreement is Rock Solid


In the ever-evolving global business landscape, protecting intellectual property (IP) and proprietary business information is paramount, especially when operating in regions like China. NNN agreements—Non-Disclosure, Non-Use, and Non-Circumvention agreements—serve as a vital tool for foreign businesses to secure their interests. While they share similarities with Western-style Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs), NNN agreements are specifically tailored to align with the Chinese legal environment and business practices. This article delves into the critical aspects of NNN agreements and offers comprehensive guidance on ensuring your NNN agreement is legally sound in China.

Functions of NNN Agreements

  1. Non-Disclosure: This clause ensures that any sensitive information shared with the manufacturer remains confidential and is not leaked to competitors or the public. The protection of trade secrets and proprietary information is crucial in maintaining a competitive edge. A comprehensive non-disclosure clause should define what constitutes confidential information and outline the specific obligations of the manufacturer to protect this information.
  2. Non-Use: Under this provision, the manufacturer is restricted from using your proprietary information for any purpose other than what is explicitly agreed upon. This prevents the manufacturer from exploiting your IP for their gain. The non-use clause should clearly state the permitted uses of the information and explicitly prohibit any unauthorized use, ensuring that the manufacturer does not apply your proprietary knowledge to benefit their operations or third parties.
  3. Non-Circumvention: This clause protects your business relationships by preventing the manufacturer from bypassing you to sell directly to your clients or producing similar products for your competitors. The non-circumvention clause should detail the scope of prohibited activities, including direct and indirect attempts to circumvent your business. It should also specify the consequences of breaching this clause, such as financial penalties or legal actions.

These clauses collectively help foreign businesses safeguard their IP, maintain a competitive advantage, and ensure that the terms of their business relationships are respected.


One of the fundamental aspects of an NNN agreement is establishing the contract’s jurisdiction in China. Here’s why it’s crucial:

Legal Security and Enforcement

Having the contract under Chinese jurisdiction significantly enhances the enforceability of the agreement. If a dispute arises, Chinese courts are more likely to enforce a contract that falls under their jurisdiction. This provides a tangible level of legal security for foreign businesses as they navigate the complex Chinese manufacturing landscape. It ensures that any legal disputes are handled within a legal framework that is familiar and favorable to the local judicial system.

Understanding Local Laws

Chinese jurisdiction ensures that the contract adheres to local laws and regulations, which may differ significantly from Western legal systems. This adherence is critical for the contract’s validity and enforceability. Understanding the nuances of Chinese commercial law, including intellectual property rights, contract law, and dispute resolution mechanisms, is essential for drafting a robust NNN agreement. Engaging local legal expertise can help navigate these complexities and ensure compliance with Chinese legal standards.


Relying solely on an English-language contract can lead to significant issues. Here’s why a verified Chinese version is essential:

Avoiding Translation Errors

Contracts written in English and later translated into Chinese can suffer from translation inaccuracies, leading to misinterpretations of contractual terms. These errors can undermine the contract’s intent and lead to disputes. Legal terminology can be particularly challenging to translate accurately, and even minor errors can have significant legal implications. Therefore, a contract originally drafted in Chinese eliminates the risk of critical information being lost in translation.

Preference of Chinese Legal System

Chinese courts operate primarily with documents in Mandarin Chinese. An English contract brought to court would need to be translated into Chinese, often without your oversight. This process can result in a poor translation, leaving your contract vulnerable to misinterpretation. By providing a Chinese version of the contract from the outset, you ensure that the document is immediately accessible and understandable to the Chinese judiciary, reducing the risk of miscommunication and legal disputes.

Control and Enforceability

A contract drafted in Chinese and verified by legal experts familiar with Chinese law ensures that the terms are clear, enforceable, and free from translation errors. This level of control is crucial for protecting your interests and ensuring the contract’s enforceability in Chinese courts. Legal verification also helps identify and rectify any potential ambiguities or inconsistencies in the contract, further strengthening its enforceability.


In the realm of Chinese manufacturing, the manufacturer can potentially become your ‘worst enemy’ without a robust NNN agreement. Here are some risks you might face:

Infringement on Your IP

Manufacturers could file for patents or trademarks in China on your products or designs, effectively locking you out of the market. This IP infringement can have severe repercussions on your business operations and market presence. To mitigate this risk, your NNN agreement should include detailed provisions outlining the ownership of IP and prohibiting the manufacturer from registering any IP related to your products or designs.

Production for Competitors

Without non-use and non-circumvention clauses, nothing stops manufacturers from using your designs or information to produce for your competitors. This undermines your competitive edge and market share. The NNN agreement should clearly define the scope of prohibited activities and include penalties for breaches, such as financial compensation or termination of the agreement.

Creation of Competing Products

Manufacturers might use your proprietary information to manufacture similar products, becoming your direct competitor. This scenario not only affects your market position but also jeopardizes your business’s long-term viability. The agreement should include strict non-use clauses that prevent the manufacturer from using your information to develop competing products, along with regular audits and monitoring mechanisms to ensure compliance.


To navigate the intricacies of Chinese manufacturing safely, a well-drafted NNN agreement is not just a recommendation—it’s a necessity. Here are key steps to ensure your NNN agreement is legally sound:

Step 1: Engage a Legal Expert on China Law

Work with a legal expert who has a deep understanding of Chinese law and business practices. This expertise is crucial for drafting a contract that is enforceable and aligns with local regulations. Local legal experts can provide insights into the latest legal developments and help tailor the contract to your specific business needs.

Step 2: Draft the Contract in Chinese

Ensure that the contract is drafted in Mandarin Chinese. This avoids translation errors and ensures that the contract is immediately comprehensible to all parties involved, including the Chinese courts. A Chinese-drafted contract also demonstrates your commitment to complying with local laws and practices, which can foster goodwill and trust with your Chinese counterparts.

Step 3: Verify with Legal Professionals

Have the contract verified by legal professionals to ensure that it is free from errors and ambiguities. This step ensures that all terms are clear and enforceable under Chinese law. Legal verification also helps identify any potential risks or loopholes in the contract, allowing you to address them proactively.

Step 4: Specify Jurisdiction

Clearly specify in the contract that any disputes will be resolved under Chinese jurisdiction. This clause enhances the likelihood of the contract being enforced by Chinese courts. Additionally, consider including a dispute resolution mechanism, such as arbitration in a reputable Chinese arbitration center, to provide a structured and efficient process for resolving conflicts.

Step 5: Include Robust Clauses

Ensure that the Non-Disclosure, Non-Use, and Non-Circumvention clauses are comprehensive and detailed. These clauses should explicitly state the limitations and obligations of the manufacturer regarding your IP and business information. Consider including specific examples and scenarios to clarify the intended scope of these clauses and prevent any misunderstandings.

Step 6: Regular Reviews and Updates

Periodically review and update the contract to reflect any changes in Chinese law or your business operations. This ensures that the contract remains relevant and enforceable. Regular reviews also provide an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the contract and make any necessary adjustments to address emerging risks or challenges.

Step 7: Training and Awareness

Ensure that your team and the manufacturer’s team are fully aware of the terms and implications of the NNN agreement. Conduct training sessions and provide clear guidelines on handling proprietary information and adhering to the contract terms. This proactive approach helps prevent unintentional breaches and reinforces the importance of compliance.

Step 8: Monitoring and Enforcement

Implement mechanisms to monitor compliance with the NNN agreement. This can include regular audits, site visits, and requiring the manufacturer to provide periodic reports on their use of your information. In case of any breaches, act swiftly and decisively to enforce the terms of the agreement and protect your interests.


In conclusion, an NNN agreement is a critical tool for foreign businesses operating in China. By ensuring your NNN agreement is legally sound—drafted in Chinese, under Chinese jurisdiction, and verified by legal experts—you can protect your intellectual property, maintain your competitive advantage, and secure the terms of your business relationships. Navigating the Chinese manufacturing landscape requires diligence and legal acumen, but with a robust NNN agreement, you can safeguard your business interests effectively. Taking these steps not only protects your business in the short term but also lays a solid foundation for long-term success in the Chinese market.

Contact us if you need help with drafting of contracts that follows Chinese laws and are enforceable in China, background investigation of Chinese companies, protecting patents, trademarks, verification of contracts to the law in China, or help with other legal challenges that you have in China.

If you require our assistance or have further questions about our services, please do not hesitate to contact our Customer Relationship Managers Jan Erik Christensen, at . We look forward to hearing from you and helping your business succeed in China.

This article is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended to replace professional legal counsel. The information contained herein does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. Reading this article does not establish an attorney-client relationship between the reader and the author or the author’s organization. Our website aim to provide general information for educational and communication purposes.