Securing Your Assets in China: A Guide to Mold and Tooling Protection in China’s Manufacturing Landscape

In the global manufacturing arena, China stands as a titan, offering an extensive supply chain infrastructure and efficient production modalities that attract businesses from all corners of the world. Central to this manufacturing prowess are the molds and toolings—crucial elements that bring product designs to life on a mass scale. Given their significant investment in terms of time, capital, and intellectual effort, protecting these assets is not just prudent but a necessity to maintain a company’s competitive edge and financial wellbeing.

However, the task of protecting these valuable assets in China presents unique hurdles, particularly for foreign companies. The Chinese legal environment, with its distinct set of laws and practices, can render the enforcement of standard contracts ineffective. Recognizing these challenges, it is essential to know how to fortify your molds and toolings against unauthorized use and competition in the Chinese market.


Establishing Solid Legal Groundwork Through NNN Agreements

The cornerstone of mold and tooling protection is the Non-Use, Non-Disclosure, Non-Circumvention (NNN) Agreement. This tripartite contract serves as the initial barricade against unauthorized exploitation of your assets. It ensures that your manufacturing partner in China cannot use, reveal, or bypass your molds to sell competing products. It is imperative that these agreements are drafted with careful consideration of Chinese laws, are subject to Chinese jurisdiction, and are penned in the Chinese language to guarantee their enforceability.


Building upon NNN with Product Manufacturing Agreements

To augment the defense established by NNN agreements, a comprehensive Product Manufacturing Agreement (PMA) is essential. This document should meticulously stipulate the terms of mold ownership, the scope of usage, maintenance protocols, and the protocols for the return or destruction of molds upon the dissolution of the partnership. The precision in a PMA serves as a secondary safeguard, delineating the responsibilities and potential liabilities of all stakeholders involved, tailored to the legal nuances of China.


Leveraging Intellectual Property Registration for Added Security

While NNN agreements and PMAs form a formidable legal framework, the protection of molds and toolings can be further reinforced by registering designs and patents in China as soon as possible. Given China’s adherence to the “first to file” principle for intellectual property rights, early registration solidifies your claims and is a strategic move for navigating legal disputes.


The Critical Role of Due Diligence

The final, yet equally critical, step in this protective strategy is conducting exhaustive due diligence on potential manufacturing partners. This process involves a deep dive into the manufacturer’s legal standing, past business practices, financial stability, and history with intellectual property rights. By selecting a manufacturing partner with a reputable track record, you add another layer of assurance to the security of your molds and toolings.

In conclusion, while China’s manufacturing capabilities are unparalleled, the protection of the molds and toolings that are the lifeblood of mass production demands a proactive and strategic approach. By implementing this multifaceted strategy—rooted in stringent legal contracts, intellectual property registration, and thorough due diligence—businesses can shield their innovative assets and secure their market position in the challenging yet rewarding Chinese manufacturing domain.



Q: Why is it important to protect molds and toolings in China? A: Molds and toolings are significant investments that embody a company’s innovation and design. Protecting them is crucial to safeguard a company’s market position and financial health, especially against unauthorized use and replication, which can lead to substantial losses.

Q: What are NNN Agreements and why are they important? A: Non-Use, Non-Disclosure, Non-Circumvention (NNN) Agreements are legal contracts that prevent a Chinese manufacturing partner from using, disclosing information about, or circumventing the original company by selling products made with their molds. These agreements should be adapted to the Chinese legal context to be enforceable and are vital as a first line of defense.

Q: What should be included in a Product Manufacturing Agreement (PMA) in China? A: A PMA should clearly define mold ownership, usage limitations, maintenance, repair, replacement, storage conditions, and terms for mold return or destruction after the agreement’s termination. It ensures that all parties understand their responsibilities and the consequences of violating the agreement.

Q: Why is registering designs and patents in China necessary? A: Registering designs and patents reinforces legal claims and is necessary because China operates on a “first to file” system for intellectual property (IP) rights. This can prevent unauthorized use of your molds and toolings and provide a legal basis for action in case of disputes.

Q: How does due diligence protect my molds and toolings in China? A: Conducting due diligence on potential manufacturing partners helps identify reputable companies that are financially stable and have a history of respecting IP rights. Working with a trustworthy partner ensures adherence to NNN agreements and PMAs, thus protecting your assets.

Q: Is it sufficient to have contracts in English or should they be in Chinese? A: All contracts in China should be adapted to Chinese laws, be under Chinese jurisdiction, and importantly, be written in Chinese to ensure that they are enforceable in a Chinese legal context. Contracts in English are in general not sufficient for legal proceedings in China, as the court in China will rely on translated versions into Chinese. Inaccurate translations result in lower enforceability, in the worst case, no enforceability, and even breaking the laws in China.

Q: Can a foreign company enforce its IP rights in China? A: Yes, a foreign company can enforce its IP rights in China, provided it has taken the necessary steps such as drafting enforceable agreements and registering its IP in China.

Q: What is the risk of changing manufacturers in China? A: Changing manufacturers without adequate legal protection can result in the previous manufacturer retaining possession of molds and toolings, which poses a risk of them using these assets to compete against you or to produce counterfeit products.


Contact us if you need legal help in China, like drafting effective cease and desist letters, drafting contracts that follow Chinese law and are enforceable in China, background investigation of Chinese companies, protecting patents, trademarks, copyright, and verification of contracts to the law in China, help with trade and IP disputes in China, etc.

If you require our assistance or have further questions about our services, please do not hesitate to contact our Customer Relationship Manager, Jan Erik Christensen, at We look forward to hearing from you and helping your business succeed in China.


Contact us if you need help with drafting of contracts that follows Chinese laws and are enforceable in China, background investigation of Chinese companiesprotecting patents, trademarks, verification of contracts to the law in China, or help with other legal challenges that you have in China.

If you require our assistance or have further questions about our services, please do not hesitate to contact our Customer Relationship Managers Jan Erik Christensen, at  or Milla Chen, at We look forward to hearing from you and helping your business succeed in China.