Protecting Molds and Toolings When Changing Manufacturers in China: Comprehensive Legal Considerations

When changing manufacturers in China, protecting your molds and toolings is crucial. These assets are vital for your production process, and ensuring their security requires a thorough understanding of legal ownership and rights. This detailed guide covers the key legal considerations to keep in mind during this transition.

Ownership and Usage Rights

Contract Clauses

A robust manufacturing contract is your first line of defense in protecting your molds and toolings. The contract must explicitly state your company’s ownership of these assets and grant you the right to reclaim the molds and toolings when changing manufacturers or terminating the agreement. This clarity helps prevent disputes over ownership and ensures your assets remain under your control.

In China, contracts are more enforceable if they follow local laws and include a legal Chinese language version to avoid translation issues. Accurate translations are critical because all contracts are translated into Chinese for court proceedings. Consulting with a legal expert familiar with Chinese manufacturing law can help draft effective contractual terms that provide solid protection.

Additionally, it’s important to include a separate contract specifically for the molds and tooling, detailing the ownership, usage rights, and conditions for transfer. This contract should be explicit about the consequences for unauthorized use or retention of the molds and tooling by the manufacturer.

Intellectual Property Rights

Securing your molds and toolings under Chinese intellectual property laws is vital. This includes obtaining patents or industrial design rights specific to China. Registering these assets strengthens your legal claim and creates a robust deterrent against unauthorized use or replication by manufacturers or third parties.

Given the specifics of Chinese intellectual property laws, working with an intellectual property attorney who understands the local legal framework is advisable to ensure comprehensive protection. Additionally, regularly monitoring for potential infringements and having a clear enforcement strategy can help maintain your rights.

Non-Disclosure, Non-Circumvention and Non-Use Agreements (NNN Agreements)

Non-disclosure, non-circumvention and non-use agreements and clauses are critical tools for safeguarding your molds and toolings. These agreements should explicitly prohibit the manufacturer from using your molds and toolings for any purpose other than producing your products during the contract term. Ensuring these agreements are detailed and enforceable in China is essential.

NNN agreements in China differ from the standard NDA (Non-Disclosure Agreement) commonly used in other jurisdictions. They include Non-Disclosure, Non-Use, and Non-Circumvention clauses:

  1. Non-Disclosure: Ensures that confidential information remains confidential.
  2. Non-Use: Prohibits the manufacturer from using your molds and toolings for any purpose other than your specific projects.
  3. Non-Circumvention: Prevents the manufacturer from bypassing you to directly deal with your customers or use your molds and toolings in a way that circumvents your business.

These agreements should clearly define the scope of confidentiality, the duration of the confidentiality obligation, and the penalties for breaches. These measures help maintain the exclusivity and confidentiality of your manufacturing processes.

Product Development Agreement

In addition to the standard manufacturing contract, it may be necessary to have a Product Development Agreement (PDA). A PDA outlines the terms and conditions under which the manufacturer will assist in the development of new products using your molds and toolings. This agreement should cover:

  1. Development Responsibilities: Clearly define the roles and responsibilities of each party in the product development process.
  2. Ownership of Intellectual Property: Specify that all intellectual property arising from the development, including improvements to the molds and toolings, belongs to your company.
  3. Confidentiality Provisions: Include strong confidentiality clauses to protect proprietary information shared during the development process.
  4. Milestones and Deliverables: Outline key milestones, deliverables, and timelines to ensure the development process stays on track.
  5. Termination Clauses: Define the conditions under which the agreement can be terminated and the consequences of such termination.

Having a PDA ensures that your interests are protected throughout the product development process and that the manufacturer cannot claim ownership of any developments or improvements made using your molds and toolings.

Transfer and Possession

Transfer Procedures

Clearly defined transfer procedures are vital when transitioning to a new manufacturer. The contract should outline the steps for transferring the molds and toolings, including notice periods, inspection rights, and logistics arrangements. In China, it is especially important to include provisions that comply with local regulations and customs procedures to avoid delays and legal issues.

Specify the condition in which the molds and toolings should be returned, and include the right to inspect them before transfer. This ensures that your assets are in good condition and ready for use by the new manufacturer.

Possession and Storage

Contractual provisions granting you the right to take physical possession of the molds and toolings upon contract termination or transfer are essential. Address any storage fees or maintenance costs during the transition period. In China, where logistical challenges can arise, having clear terms regarding possession and storage is crucial.

Ensure the contract specifies the exact location where the molds and toolings will be stored and the conditions under which they will be kept. This prevents any ambiguity about the whereabouts and state of your assets during the transition.

Dispute Resolution and Jurisdiction

Choosing the appropriate jurisdiction for dispute resolution is critical. Foreign court judgments are seldom enforced in China due to differences in legal systems and lack of reciprocal enforcement treaties. Therefore, it is advisable to stipulate that disputes will be resolved under Chinese jurisdiction and in Chinese courts.

Including an arbitration clause, particularly through established bodies like the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC), can provide an efficient and enforceable method for resolving disputes. Arbitration decisions are more readily enforceable in China compared to foreign court judgments. Mediation can also be an effective way to resolve disputes amicably without the need for lengthy legal proceedings.

Enforcement and Remedies

Breach of Contract

Clearly define the consequences and remedies for the manufacturer in case of a breach of contract, such as unauthorized use or retention of your molds and toolings. In China, enforcing breach of contract is straightforward if the terms are clear and follow local laws, making it essential to have detailed and enforceable terms.

Specify the penalties for breach, including financial damages and the requirement to return the molds and toolings immediately. This clarity deters manufacturers from engaging in unauthorized activities and provides you with a strong basis for legal recourse.

Injunctive Relief

Consider including provisions that allow you to seek injunctive relief to prevent the manufacturer from using or retaining your molds and toolings in case of a dispute. Injunctive relief can be crucial in China, where court orders can quickly stop unauthorized activities.

Outline the conditions under which you can seek injunctive relief and the process for doing so. This ensures you can take swift legal action to protect your assets if necessary.

Damages and Penalties

Specify the damages and penalties the manufacturer may be liable for in case of unauthorized use, damage, or loss of your molds and toolings. Clearly defined penalties reinforce the seriousness of compliance and provide a clear framework for compensation.

In China, where legal enforcement is reliable if the contracts are clear and legally compliant, having detailed and specific penalty clauses can make a significant difference in ensuring compliance and providing you with a basis for claiming damages.


When changing manufacturers in China, addressing these legal aspects in your manufacturing contracts and taking proactive measures is essential for protecting your valuable molds and toolings. Clear ownership and usage rights, well-defined transfer procedures, and strong enforcement mechanisms ensure that your assets remain secure and your interests are safeguarded.

By including detailed and enforceable NNN agreements, specifying jurisdiction within China, utilizing local legal mechanisms, and considering additional agreements like Product Development Agreements, you can protect your investment and ensure a smoother transition between manufacturers. These steps contribute to the overall stability and success of your production processes. Being vigilant and thorough in your legal preparations helps mitigate risks and navigate the complexities of manufacturing in China with confidence.

FAQs on Protecting Molds and Toolings When Changing Manufacturers in China

1. Why is it important to have explicit contract clauses regarding molds and toolings?

Having explicit contract clauses ensures clear ownership and usage rights of your molds and toolings, preventing disputes and unauthorized use when changing manufacturers. These clauses legally bind the manufacturer to your terms, providing a solid foundation for protecting your assets.

2. How can intellectual property rights protect my molds and toolings in China?

Securing intellectual property rights, such as patents and industrial design rights specific to China, strengthens your legal claim over your molds and toolings. This protection deters unauthorized use and replication, ensuring your assets remain exclusive to your production.

3. What are NNN agreements and why are they important?

NNN (Non-Disclosure, Non-Use, Non-Circumvention) agreements are critical in China to protect your molds and toolings. They ensure that the manufacturer does not disclose, misuse, or bypass you to directly deal with your customers. These agreements provide comprehensive protection for your confidential information and assets.

4. What should a Product Development Agreement (PDA) include?

A PDA should include:

  • Development responsibilities
  • Ownership of intellectual property
  • Confidentiality provisions
  • Milestones and deliverables
  • Termination clauses

This agreement ensures your interests are protected throughout the product development process and any improvements made using your molds and toolings belong to you.

5. What are the key considerations for transferring molds and toolings to a new manufacturer?

Key considerations include:

  • Clearly defined transfer procedures
  • Notice periods and inspection rights
  • Logistics arrangements
  • Specifying the condition for return
  • Right to inspect molds and toolings before transfer

These provisions ensure a smooth and transparent transition, maintaining the condition and availability of your assets.

6. Why is specifying possession and storage terms important?

Specifying possession and storage terms prevents ambiguity about the whereabouts and condition of your molds and toolings during the transition. Clear terms regarding storage fees and maintenance costs ensure your assets are well-protected and accessible.

7. How should dispute resolution and jurisdiction be handled in the contract?

Dispute resolution should be specified under Chinese jurisdiction and in Chinese courts, as foreign court judgments are seldom enforced in China. Including an arbitration clause, especially through bodies like CIETAC, ensures efficient and enforceable dispute resolution.

8. What are the consequences and remedies for a breach of contract?

The contract should clearly define the penalties for breach, including financial damages and the requirement to return molds and toolings immediately. These terms deter unauthorized activities and provide a strong basis for legal recourse.

9. What is injunctive relief and why is it important?

Injunctive relief allows you to seek court orders to prevent the manufacturer from using or retaining your molds and toolings in case of a dispute. It provides immediate legal intervention to protect your assets from unauthorized use.

10. How are damages and penalties specified in the contract?

Damages and penalties should be clearly defined in the contract, outlining the manufacturer’s liability for unauthorized use, damage, or loss of your molds and toolings. These clauses ensure compliance and provide a framework for compensation if your assets are compromised.

11. What additional steps can be taken to protect molds and toolings?

Additional steps include:

  • Regularly monitoring for potential infringements
  • Having a clear enforcement strategy
  • Consulting with legal experts familiar with Chinese law
  • Including detailed and enforceable NNN agreements
  • Considering Product Development Agreements for development processes

These proactive measures further safeguard your assets and ensure legal compliance.

12. Why is having a Chinese language version of the contract important?

Having a Chinese language version of the contract ensures accurate translation and understanding of the terms, as all contracts are translated into Chinese for court proceedings. This prevents misunderstandings and enhances enforceability in Chinese courts.

Contact us if you need help with drafting of contracts that follows Chinese laws and are enforceable in China, background investigation of Chinese companies, protecting patents, trademarks, verification of contracts to the law in China, or help with other legal challenges that you have in China.

If you require our assistance or have further questions about our services, please do not hesitate to contact our Customer Relationship Managers Jan Erik Christensen, at . We look forward to hearing from you and helping your business succeed in China.

This article is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended to replace professional legal counsel. The information contained herein does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. Reading this article does not establish an attorney-client relationship between the reader and the author or the author’s organization. Our website aim to provide general information for educational and communication purposes.