How to Prepare and Structure a Robust Manufacturing Contract in China

Chinese manufacturers have cemented their position as leading global suppliers across various industries. Their ability to produce a broad spectrum of goods at competitive prices makes them a popular choice for international businesses. However, the venture is not without its challenges. Risks and uncertainties, potential red flags, and scam alerts are associated with doing business in China. Therefore, before deciding to go into any cooperation with a Chinese company and signing a manufacturing contract, proper due diligence is a necessity to ensure secure and transparent dealings.


Recognizing Red Flags and Scam Alerts Before Signing a Manufacturing Contract

Business Name and Registration:

The first step in due diligence is to determine the actual Chinese business name of the manufacturer. This should then be verified against Chinese government records to ensure legitimacy.

Suspicious Contracting Practices:

One common tactic is for a company to encourage you to sign agreements with different subsidiaries, which could be a strategy to sidestep liability. Always be cautious of where and with whom you’re signing contracts.

Absence of Official Business Stamps:

Official business stamps (or chops) hold the same legal weight in China as a signature outside of China. Any agreement that lacks an official business stamp is not valid and should be approached with suspicion.

Company’s Financial Standing:

Delve into the company’s capitalization, primary sources of funding, and overall financial health. A company in poor financial health can be a significant risk for any business transaction.

Conflicts of Interest:

Researching the potential conflicts of interest among officials and shareholders is also essential, as it can help you assess the company’s credibility and potential risks.

Irregular Activities or Operations Canceled:

Being on these lists can be indicative of financial mismanagement or other problems that might not make the company a reliable partner.

Alignment with Approved Business Scope:

It is crucial to verify that the manufacturer’s product or service offerings align with their approved business scope.

Tangible Assets and Intellectual Property:

Ensure that the manufacturer has substantial tangible assets and clear intellectual property holdings, especially if they claim to have unique or patented processes.

Legal History:

Companies with a history of disputes, lawsuits, or other legal challenges can be a red flag.


Constructing a Robust Manufacturing Contract

A robust manufacturing contract can be your safeguard against potential issues:

Clearly Defined Terms:

Outline specifics such as product specifications, order quantities, delivery timelines, and payment terms.

Quality Control Measures:

Detail the acceptable standards, inspection processes, and what constitutes a rejectable product.

Recourse in Case of Financial Distress:

The contract should have clear terms in case the manufacturer faces financial issues or bankruptcy. This includes clauses that allow the use of assets to fulfill any obligations.

Advance Payment Bond:

This bond ensures that your advance payment can be returned if the manufacturer fails to deliver.


Molds and the Importance of a Robust Manufacturing Contract in China

For most companies, a Non-Disclosure, Non-Use, and Non-Circumvention (NNN) agreement should be a first line of defense in protecting your interests in China as it provides better protection and is more common in China than a regular NDA. Focusing on the manufacturing contract is equally vital. The manufacturing contract goes beyond the business relationship’s initial stages to address the manufacturing specifics, especially when molds are involved.


Molds and Key Components of a Manufacturing Contract:

  1. Ownership of Molds: The PMA must make it unequivocally clear who holds the ownership rights to the molds. This clarity prevents potential disputes in the future.
  2. Usage Limitations: Specifying how and where the molds can be used is essential. By setting clear boundaries, manufacturers will understand the extent to which they can use the molds, preventing unauthorized usage.
  3. Penalties for Violation: There should be a clear outline of consequences if any terms of the PMA are breached, especially regarding mold use and ownership. This acts as a deterrent to any potential violation.
  4. Mold Maintenance and Storage: The agreement should set forth terms concerning mold maintenance, repair, and replacement. Furthermore, the storage conditions should be clearly defined to ensure the longevity and preservation of the molds.
  5. Return or Destruction of Molds: Upon the termination of the business relationship or the PMA, there should be clear terms addressing whether the molds will be returned to the owner or destroyed. This ensures that the molds don’t fall into unauthorized hands post-agreement.


Intellectual Property in Manufacturing Contracts in China

China has a first-to-file system when it comes to intellectual property (IP). So, the first to file, for example, a design patent in China, owns it. Thus, clearly defining IP rights is paramount when detailing a manufacturing contract in China. Who owns the rights to the product design? Who holds the rights to any process innovations that might emerge during manufacturing? These questions need clear answers.

  • Clearly Define IP Ownership: Ensure that the contract explicitly states that all intellectual property rights related to the product, its design, and its manufacturing processes belong to your company. Any ambiguity can lead to costly disputes later on.
  • Restrictions on Use: The contract should clearly define how the manufacturer can use your IP. It should specify that they can only use your IP to produce your product and not for any other purpose, including producing goods for other clients or their own benefit.
  • Confidentiality Clauses: An NNN (Non-Disclosure, Non-Use, Non-Circumvention) agreement can further safeguard your IP. It prevents the manufacturer from disclosing, using, or bypassing your intellectual property for its advantage.


Manufacturing Contract: Ensuring Enforceability in China

For any contract to hold weight in China, certain conditions need to be met:

  • Adherence to Chinese Laws: All contracts must be in line with and adapted to the current Chinese laws. This ensures that the contract is viewed as valid in Chinese courts.
  • Jurisdiction in China: To ensure enforceability, it’s crucial to have the jurisdiction stated in the contract to be in China. It makes the legal process smoother if disputes arise.
  • Language of the Contract: Contracts written in Chinese are far more enforceable in China, and you avoid translation problems and reduce enforceability later on in the court in China. Even if an English version is provided, the translated Chinese version will be deemed official in legal proceedings.



Engaging with Chinese manufacturers can be lucrative, but it’s essential to be armed with the right knowledge and resources. Being aware of potential red flags and scam alerts, combined with the creation of a robust manufacturing contract, can greatly mitigate risks. Remember, the key to a successful international business relationship lies in transparency, understanding, and strict adherence to legal and ethical standards.

A well-crafted manufacturing contract offers protection, clarity, and assurance to both parties involved in the manufacturing process. When combined with an NNN agreement/paragraph, businesses can navigate the manufacturing landscape in China with greater confidence. And by ensuring contracts are in line with Chinese legal and linguistic standards, with the jurisdiction set to China adapted to Chinese laws, international businesses can ensure that their agreements stand up in Chinese courts.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Manufacturing Contracts in China

1. What is the difference between an NNN agreement and a manufacturing contract?

  • The NNN (Non-Disclosure, Non-Use, Non-Circumvention) agreement is primarily focused on protecting intellectual property and confidential information, while the manufacturing details the specifics of the manufacturing process, including mold ownership, maintenance, and usage limitations. It is common to integrate NNN-paragraphs into the manufacturing contract in China to increase protection.

2. How can I ensure the manufacturer doesn’t use my molds for other clients?

  • Clearly stipulate mold ownership and usage limitations in the manufacturing contract. Also, include penalties for violations to deter unauthorized usage.

3. What happens to molds upon termination of a contract?

  • The fate of the molds should be specified in the manufacturing contract, dictating whether they should be returned to the owner or destroyed.

4. Why is jurisdiction in China essential for manufacturing contracts?

  • Setting jurisdiction in China streamlines the legal process and makes the contract more enforceable within the Chinese legal system, especially if disputes arise.

5. Can I use a standard contract template for my manufacturing needs in China?

  • While templates can provide a starting point, it’s crucial to customize contracts to cater to the specifics of the business relationship and ensure they align with Chinese laws.

6. How can I prevent potential conflicts of interest when dealing with Chinese manufacturers?

  • Proper research, due diligence, and clearly defined terms in contracts can mitigate risks related to conflicts of interest.

7. Are business stamps (chops) legally binding in China?

  • Yes, in China, official business stamps hold significant legal weight. An agreement with a Chinese contract without an official stamp from the Chinese company is not considered valid and is a clear scam alert.

8. Is it common for Chinese manufacturers to have multiple subsidiaries?

  • Some Chinese manufacturers have multiple subsidiaries for various reasons, including tax benefits or strategic operations. Always ensure you’re contracting with the right Chinese entity.



Contact us if you need legal help in China, like drafting contracts that follow Chinese law, background investigation of Chinese companies, protecting patents, trademarks, and verification of contracts to the law in China, etc.

If you require our assistance or have further questions about our services, please do not hesitate to contact our Customer Relationship Manager, Jan Erik Christensen, at We look forward to hearing from you and helping your business succeed in China.

Contact us if you need help with drafting of contracts that follows Chinese laws and are enforceable in China, background investigation of Chinese companies, protecting patents, trademarks, verification of contracts to the law in China, or help with other legal challenges that you have in China.

If you require our assistance or have further questions about our services, please do not hesitate to contact our Customer Relationship Managers Jan Erik Christensen, at . We look forward to hearing from you and helping your business succeed in China.

This article is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended to replace professional legal counsel. The information contained herein does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. Reading this article does not establish an attorney-client relationship between the reader and the author or the author’s organization. Our website aim to provide general information for educational and communication purposes.